The binding and folding illustrations below are not exhaustive but give a good starting point (click on an image to enlarge) to gaining an understanding of the different types of available binding methods and folding schemes.
There is a single illustration for Perfect Binding but included within this category is PUR Binding and Thread Sewing. An earlier blog post considers the merits of PUR vs Perfect Binding because they are similar in method and operation. A Thread Sewn book has one major advantage over the other two; it can be opened and it will lie flat. It is also a significantly more expensive method of binding.